汉语“上-下”空间隐喻与英语“up-down”空间隐喻比较_英语论文.doc

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Abstract:Lakoff said that metaphor is a principal and an indispensable method for us to conceptualize the world. Spatial metaphor is a cognitive process that uses space(the source domain) to map, and then gain extended and abstract meanings. Spatial metaphor is fundamental for people to express and understand many non-spatial abstract concepts. The Chinese “Shang/Xia” and English “up/down” is correspondent or equivalent in the spatial metaphor system while sometimes there are differences as well. Since human beings begin to know the world from the locations and movements in the spatial environment where they exist, the human body and life experience becomes the basis of spatial metaphor mapping, thus no matter whether they are the same or different mapping, they are based on the spatial distance. Therefore, deep research into the “up/down” spatial metaphor in both English and Chinese is very significant. This thesis aims to compare and find out the similarities and differences of English and Chinese metaphor from four aspects: time, state, quantity and social status, and then find out its cause.

 

Key words: up/down, spatial metaphor, mapping

 

Contents

摘要

Abstract

Chapter One Introduction-1

1.1 The Significance and Objective of This Thesis-1

1.2 The Layout of This Thesis-1

Chapter Two Literature Review-3

2.1 Literature Review of Metaphor Study Abroad-3

2.2 Literature Review of Metaphor Study at Home-4

Chapter Three Basic Knowledge of Metaphor-5

3.1 Definition of Metaphor-5

3.2 Classification of Metaphors-6

3.2.1 Spatial Metaphor-6

3.2.2 Ontological Metaphor-7

3.2.3 Structural Metaphor-7

Chapter Four A Comparison of Chinese Shang/Xia and English Up/Down-8

4.1 Image Schema-8

4.2 Three Prototypical Models-9

3.2.1 Dynamic Model-9

4.2.2 Static Model-9

4.2.3 Contact Model-10

4.3 Metaphor Extension of Time-10

4.4Metaphor Extension of State-10

4.5 Metaphor Extension of Quantity-11

4.6 Metaphor Extension of Social Status-12

Chapter Five Conclusion-13

References-14

Acknowledgements-15

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