摘 要: 强奸罪作为一个古老的罪名，是传统刑法理论公认的一种严重侵害妇女人身权利、危害妇女身心健康的犯罪，为世界各国刑法所规定。由于长期以来的传统观念认为女性在两性关系中处于被动且弱势的低位，因此在刑法学理论上长期以来一直强调该行为是对女性意志的违背，并且通常认为强奸犯罪的主体主要是男性，其对象只能是妇女。然而，近些年来，随着人权理论研究的不断深入，两性地位的逐渐平等，性观念的改变，以及司法实践中屡屡发生的各种类型的侵害公民性权利案件，使得刑法学界有关强奸犯罪的理论研究出现了新的变化，传统的刑法学理论受到挑战，同时也让传统的“强奸罪”出现局限性，导致一些具有相似性质的犯罪无法受到“强奸罪”的管辖，也出现一些难以界定的行为，其中包括婚内性侵害的问题、同性性侵害的问题、男性能否成为性侵害对象的问题，等等，都成为刑法学理论研究所面对的新课题。应当说，这些问题的研究不仅具有理论上的意义，而且对于立法及司法实践都具有重要的意义。
关键词：强奸 夫妻 性别 性行为
Abstract: As a old accusation, rape is considered as a crime witch seriously violates women's human rights and break women's physiological and psychological health by traditional criminal law in most of the countries all over the world. Because of a long last traditional concept that women is passive and disadvantaged in sexual relations, so crime theory think that the crime object could be only women, and subject of the rape are only men.
However, in recent years, with the research of human rights developed, sexual distinction equally treated, sexual concept changes, and many different types of infringement in judicial practice, the criminal law academic circles start to change their opinions. At the same time, traditional theory is being challenged. And the articles of rape exposed lots of limitations, defects and deficiencies. In judicial practice, many crimes witch are similar to rape can not be under the jurisdiction of criminal law. There are some crime behaviors that is hard to be defined appeared, such as ripe in marriage, homosexual rape, male rape object, and so on. They all become new topic of criminal law theory. It's quite obviously to recognize that it's not only significant for theory research, but also important for judicial practice.
Key Words: Rape Husband and Wife Gender Sex